Linking Knowledge: Linked Open Data for Knowledge Organization and Visualization, ed. Richard P. Smiraglia and Andrea Scharhnorst. Baden-Baden: Ergon Verlag, 2021.







  • Chapter 1. The Need for Knowledge Organization, p. 1-23
    IKOS institutional member Andrea Scharnhorst and IKOS Senior Fellow Richard P. Smiraglia

“Ultimately the LD ecosystem explored and documented so eloquently by the contributors to this volume represents a potentially unbridled source of knowledge generation, acquisition, production and dissemination.”

  • Chapter 2. Classifications as Linked Open Data: Challenges and Opportunities, p. 24-34
    IKOS contributing members Rick Szostak and Daniel Martínez-Ávila, IKOS institutional member Andrea Scharnhorst, IKOS Senior Fellow Richard P. Smiraglia, with Aida Slavic and Tobias Renwick

“The translation or transference of a resource to another medium or another technology is not merely a technological enterprise but is in essence coupled to a variety of research problems. The process can be compared to the mapping of vocabularies to each other, which is also not a mere mechanical process but entails all kinds of research and editorial decisions, which in turn will influence how a KOS resource is further used.”

  • Chapter 7. Identifying and Classifying the Phenomena of Music, p. 143-48
    IKOS Senior Fellow Richard P. Smiraglia and IKOS contributing member Rick Szostak

“There is a dissonance in the field of knowledge organization between a body of theory that urges faceted classification and a body of practice around enumerated classification. …. The thesaural interface discussed here can potentially allow a synthetic approach to classification such as the BCC to outperform enumerated classifications without the painstaking task of developing a thesaurus manually.”

  • Chapter 9. Digging into the Mensural Music Knowledge Graph: Renaissance Polyphony meets Linked Open Data, p. 168-84
    IKOS Senior Fellow Richard P. Smiraglia, IKOS Associate Fellow James Bradford Young and Marnix van Berchum

“The problem for LD is to move the complex systems created manually for successful clustering and disambiguation into the LOD cloud through the use of SW technologies. In our project we were able to convert a large component of the CMME mensural music database to LD by entering each composer and musical work (mentefact) into LD authority records. These records are themselves linked to knowledge organization systems ranging from the alphabetico-classified system of composer and title indexes to the LOD thesauri of subject headings, forms, genres and medium of performance terms. In this way we have attempted to activate the self-indexing capability of the SW.”

  • Chapter 11. Knowledge Spaces: Visualizing and Interacting with Dimensionality, p. 200-18
    Charles van den Heuvel and IKOS Senior Fellow Richard P. Smiraglia

“Full integration of knowledge in one system or network is a Utopian dream .… Despite its enormous growth, it is unlikely that the SW will succeed in fulfilling this dream completely either .… The need for multiple models seems also to be acknowledged in the discussions about the future of the SW.

Smiraglia, Richard P. 2022 “ The Domain Analysis Clinic: A Singular Advance in Domain Analysis for Knowledge Organization.” Brazilian Journal of Information Science: Research trends, vol.16, Dossier Domain Analysis, 2022, e02160. DOI:

  • Abstract: Domain analysis is a primary approach to the representation of shared ontological bases in knowledge organization. The growth of domain analysis as a paradigm is demonstrated over a period of two decades. The Domain Analysis Clinic, or DAC is a core methodology generated for focused concept discovery combining meta-analytical theoretical research with the formation of domain-specific knowledge organization systems. The emergence of the DAC as a tool for meta-analysis and discourse analysis has demonstrated the efficacy of focused concept formation for taxonomic representation as well as for theoretical discovery in KO. The evidence presented here strongly directly suggests the continued honing and maturity of domain analysis as a paradigm in KO. 

Fragomeni Padron, Marcos,Fernando William Cruz, Juliana Rocha de F. Silva and Richard P. Smiraglia. Accepted. “A Proposal of Conceptual Model for Brazilian Popular Music.” Journal of Documentation. Forthcoming December 2022.

  • Abstract: The term “Brazilian popular music” refers to a varied repertoire of musical styles with strong connection to local culture, which legitimizes itself as tradition and creates records of current social organization. Despite their importance to the local community, many sources of popular music information have interoperability problems because of the adoption of descriptive solutions that keep them as informational silos.

Most of the problems perceived in the repositories and collections of national music occur due to the absence of a representation compatible with the characteristics of this type of music. In fact, the initiatives of representation of this domain of interest occur through adaptations of generic models and strategies coming from contexts and musical styles that differ from the essential characteristics of the national music.

In this article, we present one characterization of popular music derived from a bibliographical review and data collection with expert users. From this characterization, a conceptual model is presented in order to supply some semantic aspects not covered by the adaptations that have been proposed for musical representation. The proposed conceptual model is intended to provide a better understanding, communication, and analysis of the Brazilian popular music domain, and to serve as a semantic reference for the development and integration of music information organization systems.

Smiraglia, Richard P., Joshua Henry, Elizabeth Milonas, Chris Marchese and Sergey Zherebchevsky. 2020. “A Formal Taxonomy of Knowledge Organization: Meta-Analysis and Facet Analysis.” Knowledge Organization 47: 558-73.  DOI:10.5771/0943-7444-2020-7- 558

  • Abstract: Nearly fifty years after the incorporation of the International Society for Knowledge Organization and the introduction of its formal scientific journal Knowledge Organization, a comprehensive encyclopedia of the domain appeared. The practice of domain analysis for knowledge organization, twenty years after its introduction as a core methodology, has created the largest corpus of theoretical knowledge in the domain analysis of knowledge organization itself. A substantial body of research data, therefore, is available in the corpus of articles and conference papers reporting on the epistemological and ontological pillars of the science of knowledge organization. This paper is a report on the evolution of a formal taxonomy of knowledge organization, which is a product of an exhaustive meta-analysis of the KO domain. Our team compiled the corpus of twenty-nine formal published analyses together with key formative historical documents. We then analyzed the corpus thematically, bibliographically, and using co-word analysis to extract key concepts and the underlying faceted conceptual infrastructure. The taxonomy itself is faceted and is linked where possible to published definitions in the KO literature and as well as to the online ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization. A dynamic project, the taxonomy will be maintained as linked open data and will grow as emergent research contributes new concepts or generates new facets. 

Gerard Coen, Richard P. Smiraglia, Peter Doorn, Andrea Scharnhorst. 2019. “Observing trajectories of KOSs Across Space and Time: The DANS KOS Observatory (KOSo).” In Proceedings from North American Symposium on Knowledge Organization, Vol. 7. Drexel University. DOI: Download a copy here.

  • Abstract: Knowledge Organization Systems (KOSs) include a wide variety of schemas ranging from ontologies, to classifications, thesauri, taxonomies, semantic networks, etc. These schemas can be updated and revised (or conversely become obsolete or lost) and are therefore prone to change over time. A wish expressed frequently by the research front in the KO community was for an “observatory” of KOSs. In 2017, via the KNAW Visiting Professor programme, DANS [1] began to focus more on understanding how KOSs change over time, how they can be archived, how version identification and control can be addressed, and also, how KOSs can be aligned to the ‘FAIR’ Data Principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable). This research ambition coupled with community interest lead to the creation of the KOSo (Knowledge Organization Systems Observatory). Concretely, the observatory involves the identification of KOSs within the social sciences and humanities or the life sciences. KOSs have been described and ordered in the observatory through a process of empirical association in order to resist the potential pitfall of already organizing these resources through the lens of other KOSs (e.g. already describing the KOS in terms of existing controlled vocabularies). KOSo employs both metadata terms and formal classifications, using the Information Coding Classification in a synthetic format together with the KO Literature Classification, thus rendering for each KOS a domain-centric term faceted with a KOS-form term. Additionally, we classify domains using the NARCIS Classification, which is a framework to represent the research foci of the Dutch national research infrastructure.

Coen, Gerard and Richard P. Smiraglia. 2019. “Toward Better Interoperability of the NARCIS Classification.” Knowledge Organization 46(5): 345-53. DOI:10.5771/0943-7444-2019-5-345. Download a copy here.

  • Abstract: Research information can be useful to science stakeholders for discovering, evaluating and planning research activities. In the Netherlands, the institute tasked with the stewardship of national research information is DANS (Data Archiving and Networked Services). DANS is the home of NARCIS, the national portal for research information, which uses a similarly named national research classification. The NARCIS Classification assigns symbols to represent the knowledge-bases of contributing scholars. A recent research stream in knowledge organization known as comparative classification uses two or more classifications experimentally to generate empirical evidence about coverage of conceptual content, population of the classes, and economy of classification. This paper builds on that research in order to further understand the comparative impact of the NARCIS Classification alongside a classification designed specifically for information resources. Our six cases come from the DANS project Knowledge Organization System Observatory (KOSo), which itself is classified using the Information Coding Classification (ICC) created in 1982 by Ingetraut Dahlberg. ICC is considered to have the merits of universality, faceting, and a top-down approach. Results are exploratory, indicating that both classifications provide fairly precise coverage. The inflexibility of the NARCIS Classification makes it difficult to express complex concepts. The meta-ontological, epistemic stance of the ICC is apparent in all aspects of this study. Using the two together in the DANS KOS Observatory will provide users with both clarity of scientific positioning and ontological relativity.

Smiraglia, Richard P. 2018. “Work.” ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization.

  • Abstract: A work is a deliberately created informing entity intended for communication. A work consists of abstract intellectual content that is distinct from any object that is its carrier. In library and information science the importance of the work lies squarely with the problem of information retrieval. Works are mentefacts — intellectual (or mental) constructs that serve as artifacts of the cultures in which they arise. The meaning of a work is abstract at every level, from its creator’s conception of it, to its reception and inherence by its consumers. Works are a kind of informing object and are subject to the phenomenon of instantiation, or realization over time. Research has indicated a base typology of instantiation. The problem for information retrieval is to simultaneously collocate and disambiguate large sets of instantiations. Cataloging and bibliographc tradition stipulate an alphabetico-classed arrangement of works based on an authorship principle. FRBR provided an entity-relationship schema for enhanced control of works in future catalogs, which has been incorporated into RDA. FRBRoo provides an empirically more precise model of work entities as informing objects and a schema for their representation in knowledge organization systems