Linking Knowledge: Linked Open Data for Knowledge Organization and Visualization, ed. Richard P. Smiraglia and Andrea Scharhnorst. Baden-Baden: Ergon Verlag, 2021.







  • Chapter 1. The Need for Knowledge Organization, p. 1-23
    IKOS institutional member Andrea Scharnhorst and IKOS Senior Fellow Richard P. Smiraglia

“Ultimately the LD ecosystem explored and documented so eloquently by the contributors to this volume represents a potentially unbridled source of knowledge generation, acquisition, production and dissemination.”

  • Chapter 2. Classifications as Linked Open Data: Challenges and Opportunities, p. 24-34
    IKOS contributing members Rick Szostak and Daniel Martínez-Ávila, IKOS institutional member Andrea Scharnhorst, IKOS Senior Fellow Richard P. Smiraglia, with Aida Slavic and Tobias Renwick

“The translation or transference of a resource to another medium or another technology is not merely a technological enterprise but is in essence coupled to a variety of research problems. The process can be compared to the mapping of vocabularies to each other, which is also not a mere mechanical process but entails all kinds of research and editorial decisions, which in turn will influence how a KOS resource is further used.”

  • Chapter 7. Identifying and Classifying the Phenomena of Music, p. 143-48
    IKOS Senior Fellow Richard P. Smiraglia and IKOS contributing member Rick Szostak

“There is a dissonance in the field of knowledge organization between a body of theory that urges faceted classification and a body of practice around enumerated classification. …. The thesaural interface discussed here can potentially allow a synthetic approach to classification such as the BCC to outperform enumerated classifications without the painstaking task of developing a thesaurus manually.”

  • Chapter 9. Digging into the Mensural Music Knowledge Graph: Renaissance Polyphony meets Linked Open Data, p. 168-84
    IKOS Senior Fellow Richard P. Smiraglia, IKOS Associate Fellow James Bradford Young and Marnix van Berchum

“The problem for LD is to move the complex systems created manually for successful clustering and disambiguation into the LOD cloud through the use of SW technologies. In our project we were able to convert a large component of the CMME mensural music database to LD by entering each composer and musical work (mentefact) into LD authority records. These records are themselves linked to knowledge organization systems ranging from the alphabetico-classified system of composer and title indexes to the LOD thesauri of subject headings, forms, genres and medium of performance terms. In this way we have attempted to activate the self-indexing capability of the SW.”

  • Chapter 11. Knowledge Spaces: Visualizing and Interacting with Dimensionality, p. 200-18
    Charles van den Heuvel and IKOS Senior Fellow Richard P. Smiraglia

“Full integration of knowledge in one system or network is a Utopian dream .… Despite its enormous growth, it is unlikely that the SW will succeed in fulfilling this dream completely either .… The need for multiple models seems also to be acknowledged in the discussions about the future of the SW.


Smiraglia, Richard P. 2018. “Work.” ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization.

  • Abstract: A work is a deliberately created informing entity intended for communication. A work consists of abstract intellectual content that is distinct from any object that is its carrier. In library and information science the importance of the work lies squarely with the problem of information retrieval. Works are mentefacts — intellectual (or mental) constructs that serve as artifacts of the cultures in which they arise. The meaning of a work is abstract at every level, from its creator’s conception of it, to its reception and inherence by its consumers. Works are a kind of informing object and are subject to the phenomenon of instantiation, or realization over time. Research has indicated a base typology of instantiation. The problem for information retrieval is to simultaneously collocate and disambiguate large sets of instantiations. Cataloging and bibliographc tradition stipulate an alphabetico-classed arrangement of works based on an authorship principle. FRBR provided an entity-relationship schema for enhanced control of works in future catalogs, which has been incorporated into RDA. FRBRoo provides an empirically more precise model of work entities as informing objects and a schema for their representation in knowledge organization systems